Mass inoculation programs for school children sometimes encounter problems – with considerable numbers of children fainting. Fortunately, in 1973, a very straightforward remedial strategy was discovered by Alan Hedberg and Audrey Schlong. It was described in the journal Nursing Research.
If you (yup, you) use a fake weapon to brutally beat a stranger, and then slit his throat, and then shoot him in the face, and then you assault a little baby, will your heart and blood pump like mad — even if you know that it’s all a trick and the man will suffer no harm and the baby is just a life-like doll? An American experiment sought an answer to that question.
Elephants are big, and they get hot. Especially in Africa. Thus, from the elephant’s point of view, there’s sometimes an urgent necessity to dissipate excess heat.
Some investigators have suggested that flapping their large ears (strictly, their ‘pinnae’) could provide a significant heat-loss mechanism. (e.g. Buss, I. O., and Estes, J. A., 1971, ‘The Functional Significance of Movements and Positions of the Pinnae of the African Elephant. Loxodonta Africana‘, Journal of .Mammalogy, 52, pp. 21-27) But, until 2013, no formal studies had investigated the transient effects of the flapping motion on the elephant pinna’s surface temperature. Prompting Dr. Moise Koffi (of the Department of Academic Affairs, CUNY-Hostos Community College, Bronx, NY, US) along with Prof. Yiannis Andreopoulos and Prof. Latif M. Jiji (both of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, The City College of New York, NY, US) to perform a series of controlled laboratory-based studies. Their experiments included the use of full-sized flapping leather faux elephant ears, silicone heaters, and a smoke machine – along with computer-model thermal simulation techniques.
The results of the experiments and simulations not only demonstrated and quantified the efficacy of ear flapping, but also showed (for the first time) the role played by swirling air vortices [see photo below].
[…] our results agree with the conclusion reached by previous researchers that the flapping of the pinna should be the main thermoregulatory mechanism of the body temperature of large animals such as African elephants. The present contribution, however in the context of the current understanding, is in identifying the vortical system that is responsible for the heat transfer enhancement
observed in the present work which is further amplified in the case of flexible surface.”
The ArgLab at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, is concerned with argumentation and decision making processes as far as they can be philosophically approached and thus related with Practical Reason and Values. For a representative recent publication from the lab, see: ‘Managing disagreement through yes, but… constructions: An argumentative analysis’ (by Mehmet Ali Uzelgun, Dima Mohammed, Marcin Lewiński, and Paula Castro, in: Discourse Studies April 28, 2015)
“The goal of this study is to examine the argumentative functions of concessive yes, but… constructions. Based on (N = 22) interview transcripts, we examine the ways environmental activists negotiate their agreements and disagreements over climate change through yes, but… constructions. Starting from conversational analyses of such concessive sequences, we develop an account grounded in argumentative discourse analysis, notably pragma-dialectics. ”