Even more applications for graphene (continued)

December 14th, 2017

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 was awarded jointly to Andre Geim (see note [1] below) and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the extraordinary properties of two-dimensional carbon. Nowadays, the burgeoning cornucopia of applications is such that a 21st century individual can literally kit themselves from head to toe with accoutrements which feature graphene (or claim to – see notes [2] & [3] below). Here are but a few examples :

• Graphene hats 

• Graphene reinforced spectacles

• Graphene tattoos

• Graphene underwear

• Graphene based sensor gloves

• Graphene Far Infrared Biomass Socks [pictured]

• Graphene enhanced shoe soles

Notes :

[1] Professor Andre Geim was awarded the 2000 Ig Nobel Physics prize – along with Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University, UK – for using magnets to levitate a frog. [reference: “Of Flying Frogs and Levitrons” by M.V. Berry and A.K. Geim, European Journal of Physics, v. 18, 1997, p. 307-13.)

[2] According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) “The term graphene should be used only when the reactions, structural relations or other properties of individual layers are discussed.” That’s to say, if it’s more than one atom thick, it’s not graphene, but a graphite layer, a carbon layer, or a carbon sheet instead.

[3] Not all claims for the applications of graphene are necessarily 100% accurate. 

BONUS (form 2012): Graphene From Garbage (and Girl Scout cookies and bugs)

Sound Pressures Generated by Exploding Eggs

December 13th, 2017

The claims made in lawsuits – and the need to verify or disprove them – sometimes spark interesting research. The Acoustical Society of America’s Fall 2017 meeting included a report titled, “Sound pressures generated by exploding eggs”.

photo by D. Kessler

  Some eggs and some safety gear
  (photo by D. Kessler)

Investigators Anthony Nash and Lauren von Blohn began this research thanks to a lawsuit: A restaurant had hard-boiled an egg and then re-heated it in a microwave before serving it. When the customer bit into the egg, it exploded with enough force and heat to cause burns and, importantly for this research, possible hearing loss.

The court could not find data on whether an exploding egg might cause hearing loss, so it contacted acoustical consulting firm, Charles M. Salter Associates, where Nash and von Blohn began their research:

“An acoustical investigation was conducted using nearly 100 eggs that were re-heated under controlled conditions in a calibrated microwave oven. About a third of the re-heated, boiled eggs exploded outside the oven. For those eggs that did explode, their peak sound pressure levels ranged from 86 up to 133 decibels at a distance of 300 millimeters. The paper will describe the test protocols and discuss the results.”

Decibel Chart courtesy of dangerousdecibels.org

dB chart from dangerousdecibels.org (does not mention eggs)

Most claims of hearing damage come from noise experienced over a sustained period of time – longer than the milliseconds of an egg explosion – but in this case, the offending egg was considerably closer than 300 millimeters away when it exploded. Nash and von Blohn began a second round of research to study the possible effects of an “in-mouth explosion”.

The lawsuit was settled out of court, but the research it sparked remains for any future court cases.

(Thanks to D. Grodzins for bringing this article to our attention.)

HEARING BONUS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have articles on the sonic dangers of Vuvuzelas and also of being a NASCAR driver or pit crew member. The CDC has declared October to be National Protect Your Hearing Month.

EGG BONUS: Cooked egg-white is white because the heat has changed how its proteins are folded. The 2015 Ig Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded for inventing a chemical recipe to partially un-boil an egg.

COURTROOM BONUS: Another example of a lawsuit whose premise required original research received the 2009 Ig Nobel Prize for investigating whether it is better to be smashed over the head with a full bottle of beer or with an empty bottle.

A demonstration of the phenomenon

“Roxanne,” plus 5 percent compounded

December 13th, 2017

The song “Roxanne,” by The Police, gets a five-percent speed boost every time the singers sing the word “Roxanne”, in this video:

Thanks to Mason Porter for bringing this to our attention.

BONUS: Earlier today, we reported a different experiment in data communications: “Data Communications via Wet Sting, or via Hungry Snail.”

Data Communications via Wet String, or via Hungry Snail

December 13th, 2017

A wet string works, for sending information from one computer to another, says a new experiment. This adds to the list of low-tech ways to move data, the most lively method involving a hungry snail.

The string experiment is reported on the RevK’s Rants web site, with the headline “It’s official, ADSL works over wet string“:

Broadband services are a wonderful innovation of our time, using multiple frequency bands (hence the name) to carry signals over wires (usually copper, sometimes aluminium). One of the key aspects of the technology is its ability to adapt to the length and characteristics of the line on which it is deployed.

We have seen faults on broadband circuits that manifest as the system adapting to much lower speeds, this is a key factor as a service can work, but unusually slowly, over very bad lines.

It has always been said that ADSL will work over a bit of wet string. Well one of our techies (www.aa.net.uk) took it upon himself to try it today at the office, and well done. He got some proper string, and made it wet….

The snail breakthrough was reported here, in the Annals of Improbable Research, in 2005 (volume 11, no. 4), with the headline “Sluggish Data Transport Is Faster Than ADSL“:

We describe an experiment in which a Giant African Snail, acting as a data transfer agent, exceeded all known “last mile” communications technologies in terms of bit-per-second performance, adding to the many paradoxes of broadband communications.1 We discuss the unique motivational and guidance systems necessary to facilitate snail-based data transport, and observe with satisfaction that in a society that worships the fittest, fastest, and furtherest, the meek and the slow can….

(Thanks to Dominic Dunlop for bringing the wet string experiment to our attention.)

“Egg unboiling machine enables graphene battery development”

December 12th, 2017

Egg unboiling machine enables graphene battery development,” is the headline in Mining Weekly. The article itself says:

The Australian researchers who successfully unboiled an egg are turning their attention to capturing the energy of graphene oxide to make a more efficient alternative to lithium-ion batteries.

The Flinders University team in South Australia has partnered with Swinburne University of Technology in Victoria, ASX-listed First Graphene and manufacturer Kremford….

In 2015, Flinders University scientists were awarded an Ig Nobel Award for creating the Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) and using it to unboil an egg. The device has also been used to accurately slice carbon nanotubes to an average length of 170 nanometres using only water, a solvent and a laser. It has also been used to process graphene to a high quality for commercial use.

The basic egg-unboiling technology is being used for many, seemingly unrelated things. Among those is the quick inexpensive production of drugs that were otherwise slow and expensive to produce.

Graphene is much in the news thanks to Andre Geim, who shared a Nobel Prize in 2010 for being the first to obtain and experiment with usable amounts of graphene, and who a decade earlier, in 2000, shared an Ig Nobel Prize for using magnets to levitate a frog.